Happy Dieciséis de Septiembre 
Mexican Independence Day



A Chronicle of Latino Higher Education in Arizona
Ernesto Gonzáles Escobedo, Ed.D. 

Commemorating the birth of the Republic of Mexico, Mexican Independence is closely tied to the struggle of la Chicanada during the 1960’s. Witnessing dramatic population increases, Latinos across the nation are participating in the political process and are celebrating evolving meanings of independence. For example, at the national level Democrat and Republican political parties are courting the Hispanic vote.

AACHE has been productive in the higher education policy arena due to visionary leaders. After many years of dedicated service, Dr. Alfredo de Los Santos, Vice Chancellor for Educational Services is retiring from the Maricopa Colleges. He has always supported the intellectual pursuits of the organization, and has been mindful of the privilege of educating students. As a founding member, he has served the public interest with distinction.

This year marks the 30th anniversary of the rise and continuous struggle by Chicanos and Chicanas for access to higher education. The theme of the Sixteenth Annual AACHE Conference is "Thirty Years of Concencia Chicana: Del Barrio a la University". The conference is set for November 5th and 6th at Arizona State University. The conference will focus on three areas: original and current goals of AACHE, Chicana/o college and university programs, and compelling current issues. In partnership with MALDEF, AACHE is encouraging our community to actively participate in the national census count. Latino/as have traditionally been reluctant to fill out census forms. The resulting undercount has negatively impacted our political representation in the halls of Congress and funding for vital education programs such as Head Start. Approximately five percent of Latinos were not counted in the last census. Consequently we are asking local AACHE Chapters to help with this important AACHE initiative.

AACHE has always supported the research efforts of its membership and publishes reviews of new books. Dr. René Diaz-Lebevre recently announced publication of his groundbreaking book Coloring Outside the Lines: Applying Multiple Intelligences and Creativity in Learning. Drs. Mather and McCarthy have released Reading and all That Jazz, an exceptional reading textbook. AACHE has many noted scholars who are working to improve the educational experience of college students and expand the frontiers of knowledge.

AACHE represents many interests and concerns of the Chicano community. It can only do its work if you do your part.


Dr. Raúl Cardenas was named acting Chancellor for the Maricopa College District on July 1, 1999. The District consists of ten colleges, the skill center, and several college centers. As chancellor he will manage a budget of $243 million. Dr. Cardenas served as President of Paradise Valley Community College before being named acting chancellor. Upon being selected, Chancellor Cardenas said: "I’m pleased to have the opportunity to assume the leadership role of an outstanding community college system. It is my hope to continue to maintain the successful track record our colleges have managed to achieve." President Cardenas is the founding President of South Mountain Community College.

A native of Del Rio, Texas, Chancellor Cardenas earned his undergraduate degree in political science and history at St. Mary’s College in San Antonio, a master’s degree in educational administration of the University of Texas at El Paso, and his doctorate from the University of Arizona. He started teaching in 1960 as a mathematics teacher in the public schools. Later he obtained an administrative position as a dean of students with El Paso Community College.

Chancellor Cardenas has served on the board of directors for several organizations. Presently he serves as a board member of the Mexican and American Solidarity Foundation, a bi-national nonprofit organization established in 1994. The purpose of this organization is to promote educational, cultural, and economic ties between Mexico and the United States. Chancellor Cardenas has been member of AACHE and worked to support its goals.


Manuel Valenzuela, principal at Walter Douglas Elementary School in Tucson and NAU alum was awarded the Milkin Family Foundation National Education Award for his dedication and success in providing quality education to Arizona’s children at ceremonies at Douglas School last October. Along with the recognition of his work he also received an award of twenty five thousand dollars.

Mr. Valenzuela credits his parents for his success as a teacher and school administrator. They always said, "You are special and can do anything you want to do!" The positive reinforcement he received from his parents has guided him through his educational career. We have to let children know that we believe in them, that they can be successful," said Valenzuela. "I realize I have to set a good example because little eyes and ears are always seeing and listening. You never know how you will affect a child by what you do or say. It is a great opportunity to influence children positively and it is a great responsibility."
His father began working in Mexico when he was 15 years old to help support his family. When he immigrated to the United States he worked in the fields then the mines. Through perseverance he developed the skills and knowledge to become a Deputy States Mines Inspector. Mr. Valenzuela’s mother dedicated herself to raising the five sons in the family. Both emphasized the importance of education and making a positive difference in society.

Mr. Valenzuela received his Masters in Education from NAU in 1993 and his administration certificate in 1994. He appreciated the opportunity to further his education through the statewide program while continuing his teaching career. "The program is great because it provides a balance between theory and practice. The instructors, many of whom are practicing professionals, provide a very meaningful experience and are full of practical knowledge," said Valenzuela.

A Paper Written for Hispanic Heritage Month by 
Adalberto M. Guerrero, Macario Saldate, IV, and Salomon R. Baldenegro

Hispanic Heritage Month is an appropriate time to reflect on the term Chicano and it’s important role in the history of the Mexican American Community.

There are many misconceptions about the term Chicano. Some of these are that Chicano was "invented" in the 1960’s by the Chicano activists, that it was "invented" by Anglos and imposed on Mexican Americans, and that it is a pejorative term that refers to "lower-class" Mexicans.

Chicano, as a term used to describe Americans of Mexican descent, has been in continuous use in the U.S. since at least the early 1900’s. Except for "Mexican", Chicano is the oldest term that is still being used among Mexican Americans to describe themselves. Spanish, Spanish-speaking, Mexican American, and other terms have come and gone, but Chicano is still being used widely today.

The earliest documented reference to Chicano occurs in 1911, in a Texas Spanish-language publication. In those days Chicano was used to refer to the recent immigrants from Mexico; the Pochos were those Mexicans who were already established here. This was a simple descriptive term, with no overt connotations to class or the like.

Between 1911 and the 1930’s, Chicanos and Pocho took on more specific meanings. The Chicanos were those U.S. "Mexicans" who were proud of their heritage, language, etc., and were intent on preserving these. The Pochos, on the other hand, were those who were trying to "de-Mexicanize" themselves and to assimilate totally into American society of those days by refusing to speak Spanish and forbidding their children to do so, etc.

In the 1940’s and 1950’s, Chicanos became a neutral term used to describe Americans of Mexican descent regardless of whether they were recently immigrated or already established here. As Mario Suarez, in his short story "El Hoyo"(about the Tucson barrio), put it in 1948: "Chicano is the short way of saying Mexicano."

However, during this period Chicano was also a very positive term that was associated with such things as valor, cultural pride and the like. Raul Morin, in his book, AMONG THE VALIANT, documents the exploits of soldiers of Mexican descent who fought in WWII and the Korean Conflict, particularly those who earned Congressional Medals of Honor, the highest number earned by any one ethnic group in U.S. history is by Mexican Americans. Morin catalogues the terms used by these soldiers to describe themselves: Spanish-Americans, Latin Americans, Pochos, Encartados, Manitos, Los Del Otro Lado, and Chicano. According to Morin, pride was the hallmark of the Chicanos;"Last were the Mexicanos (Mexicans), the proudest of all our groups, those boasting of being "Chicano" or "Mejicano"…although these were not necessarily from Mexico, some were."

Up to this point (1950’s and into the 1960’s), Chicano was an "internal" term. That is, it was used exclusively by Chicanos/Mexicans within their own milieu.

In the 1960’s, Chicano became a "public" term in that it began to be used almost exclusively in speeches and writings by civil - rights activists. Rejecting terms such as Spanish-speaking and Spanish-American that were being imposed on Mexican Americans by academicians and government bureaucrats, Chicanos activists made the term public. They cited the proud and positive history of the term and put it forth as an "indigenous" term, that is, one coined and used by their own people.

However, because the term became public in the 1960’s and 1970’s, and because it did so in the context of a strong political civil-rights movement, the misconception developed that the term was "invented" during this period and that it is a political term.

Hispanic is the term that is currently being popularized. It is not clear who coined the term (many remember seeing it publicly for the first time on a billboard promoting beer- "The 80’s: Decade of the Hispanic!"), but it started to be used by bureaucrats and others in the late 1970’s. It saves people the trouble of having to specify Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Cuban-Americans, and other Latino groups.

Whether a person of Mexican heritage chooses to call him/herself Hispanic or Chicano (or nothing at all for that matter) is a matter of personal choice. However, making that choice should not entail putting down others. Those who prefer Hispanic should not denigrate the Chicano(a).

For the reality is that it was the Chicano Movement, in conjunction with the Black and Indian movements, that opened the doors and paved the way for the progressive things that we now enjoy and that we many times take for granted.

For example, O.M.S.A., New Start, the many scholarships programs for Hispanics, the Mexican American Studies and Research Center, and the other programs and efforts aimed at helping our people achieve a better life are a direct result of the Chicano, Black, and Indian movements of the 1960’s and1970’s. The same Is true in university faculty/staff hiring, in politics, business, education and other arenas, not only here, but all over the United States.

This progress was achieved at great personal and professional sacrifice by Chicano, Black, and Indian activists, the vanguard of which was compromised of college students. These people risked their jobs, postponed their education, were ostracized, went to jail, and suffered beatings (and sometimes shootings), among other things, in order to fight racism and discrimination against our people and to assert pride in our heritage and demand respect for our people.

These efforts of the Chicano movement need to be acknowledged regardless of what we as individuals choose to call ourselves. During Hispanic Heritage Month we should reflect on our history proudly.



*1999 San Francisco Chronicle

This July the Hispanic Scholarship Fund received the single largest grant ever given to promote education for the nation’s fastest growing minority. The $50 million grant was received from the Lilly Endowment Inc. and for the first time since its inception in 1975, the fund is not starting at zero and scraping together small donations for scholarships. "You brace yourself for it, but actually hearing somebody say, ‘We believe in your kids and we believe in what you are doing’ is overwhelming," said Sara Martinez Tucker, President and CEO of the Hispanic Scholarship Fund.

Since 1975, the fund has helped about 36,000 Hispanic students across the country with awards totaling more than $38 million. Last year the fund awarded $3.52 million to 2,600 students and this year they will be able to give $12 million to 6,000 students. Ninety seven percent of scholarship recipients have earned bachelor’s degrees and another 2 percent received two-year degrees from community colleges.

The Lilly Endowment traditionally has supported religion, education and community development – mostly in Indiana. The donation to the Hispanic Scholarship Fund marks the single largest gift given to a non-Indiana entity in the history of the Lilly Endowment. The HSF will get $45 million now and has two years to raise $5 million to get the last $5 million in matching funds. The combined $10 million will be used to start an endowment to funds scholarships in perpetuity.

Latino Organizations met during the National Council of La Raza Conference to hold the National Latino Media Summit. A decision was made to conduct a Brownout of ABC, CBS, NBC, & FOX as a response to the lack of a Latino presence in their programming. This boycott is scheduled for National Hispanic Heritage Week (Sept 12-18). If you would like to E-mail or fax the networks visit Picosito.com and click on Brownout ’99. A Brown Ribbon campaign has been initiated, wear a brown ribbon and let people know you support the Brownout.


Of all the academic skills taught at the community college, reading is the most crucial for student success. Drawing on the vibrant nature of music, Reading and All That Jazz written by Peter Mather, Ed.D and Rita McCarthy, M.A., presents the premise that a reading course can develop many skills by engaging students in learning through music. The book provides students a wide assortment of articles written by well known writers. The authors present articles that gradually take the student from a basic reading level to a level of reading encountered in college. The authors use class activities to develop critical thinking, analysis and synthesis. They introduce the student to writing by having them write essays that explore patterns to compare-and-contrast and the relationship of cause-and-effect. They provide a brief history of the development of Jazz within their pedagogical context. Peter Mather and Rita McCarthy have written an extraordinary reading textbook that can assist students become exceptional readers.



The Theory of Multiple Intelligences(MI) represents a cognitive model for teaching students at all levels based on their learning strengths. Coloring Outside the Lines: Applying Multiple Intelligences and Creativity in Learning by René Diaz-Lefebvre, Ph.D. challenges college professors to take their teaching beyond the traditional lecture method. Using examples from different disciplines, Dr. Diaz-Lefebvre leads the reader step-by-step on how to use the Multiple Intelligences and Learning for understanding (MI/LfU) model to teach for retention and understanding. The book answers every instructor’s concern about how to motivate students to complete assigned readings. Through thoughtful quotes, the book captures the essence of teaching and learning: "The right angle to solve a difficult problem is the try-angle (Levitt)." In the book students relate how much they enjoy having the opportunity to use their different intelligences. Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner, comments about the book : "A lively and readable introduction to the theory of multiple intelligences, with particular focus on college students. This book shows how a multiple intelligences approach can be used to teach concepts effectively." Using a common-sense approach to teach diverse students, this work represents a fresh way of college teaching. Charter high schools, business and industry trainers as well as proprietary schools could improve their educational programs by incorporating a MI/LfU approach. Every teacher and education policy maker should possess a copy of this book. The book and two-part videotape may be purchased
through the publisher (Wiley) at 1-800-225-5945.

proudly presents its
16th Annual AACHE Conference
Plenary,Panels,Papers,Workshops:1969 and Current Goals, Chicanas/os Studies at the College and University, Current and Critical Issues, Legislation and Political Empowerment, and Preparing Chicanas/os for Higher Education
Arizona State University
Tempe, Arizona
Memorial Union
Friday, November 5, 1999 and
Saturday, November 6, 1999
Hosted by the Chicano Faculty and Staff Association, ASU Chapter of AACHE

AACHE: Its Mission and Its Purpose

The purpose of this organization is to provide a forum for the discussion of issues related to Chicanas and Chicanos in higher education and to cooperate in providing workable solutions to these issues.

Tentative Conference Schedule

FRIDAY, November 5, 1999

8 a.m.-4 p.m. On-site Registration and Continental Breakfast   9:00 - 9:30 a.m. Welcoming Ceremony   9:45-11:05 a.m. Plenary: The Conference Theme and Its Subdivisions-Chicana/o Higher Education and Arizona, Bilingual Education, Chicana/o Studies, Immigration, Chicana/o ABOR Representation: History, Successes, Failures.   11:10-12:15 p.m. Chicana/o Studies Programs at the College and University Preparing Chicanas/os for Higher Education Current and Critical Issues:

12:30-2:00 p.m. Awards Luncheon

2:10 - 3:30 p.m. Internet, Census 2000, El Plan de Santa Bárbara in Arizona: Braun Sacred Heart Center (BSHC) and the Community Documentation Pedagogic Process (CDP)   3:40-5:00 p.m. 1969 and Current Goals: Legislation and Political Empowerment   5:15-6:40 p.m. Reception at the University Club, No Host Bar   6:45-11:00 p.m Fajita Cook-off & Art Auction   11 p.m.-1 a.m. Drinks and Dancing at Manuel's Restaurant SATURDAY, November 6, 1999
                      8:00 - 9:00 a.m. Menudo Breakfast

                      9:05 - 10: 00 a.m. AACHE Chapter/Student Caucuses Meetings,
                      Conference Resolutions.

                      10:05 - 11:25 a.m. Panels/Workshops/Papers

                      11:30-12:00 p.m. Refreshments

                      12:05 - 1:00 p.m. General AACHE Business Meeting:
                      Chapter/Student Caucus Reports, New AACHE Officers, Resolutions,
                      Conference Evaluation

Registration Form
This form MUST accompany the registration fee.

        If you are faxing this form,


AACHE’s 16th Annual Conference
November 5 & 6, 1999
Arizona State University
Memorial Union










Phone: (___)______________________Fax: ( )________________________  



REGISTRATION FEES: In addition to paying your annual AACHE membership of $ 25.00, the conference registration fee entitles you to the AACHE awards luncheon, all panels, workshops, papers, the plenary session, a reception, off-site events, and daily attendance for the Silent Auction. Regular registration fee is: $ 115.00. (Una especial!: early bird registration is only: $ 100.00; however, your check must be mailed and postmarked by October 15, 1999. We highly encourage early bird registration!

Postmarked by 10/15 On-Site/After 10/15

 Early Bird Registration Fee $100.00 $115.00

 Student Registration Fee $25.00 $25.00

Registration Amount ____________

Total Fee Enclosed ____________

If affiliated with an Organization/College/University, please name______________________________________________

I am (please check one) Administrator  Faculty  Staff  Student Business Representative Community Representative


Make checks payable to AACHE Conference 1999

Return this form with check to:

AACHE Conference1999 c/o Prof. Manuel J. Hernández-G., Registration Coordinator

Arizona State University/Hispanic Research Center

Box 872702 Tempe, Arizona 85287-2702

Questions? Call: Prof. Manuel de Jesús Hernández-G.,(480)965-9573, Manuel.Hernandez@asu.edu; Sr. Ed Delci, (480) 965-5407;
or Dr. Santos Vega, (480) 965-8234.

Hotel Accommodations: Tempe has many hotels near Arizona State University. Among them are: Twin Palms, (480) 967- 943; Holiday Inn, (480) 968-3451; Tempe Mission Palms, 894-1400; Motel Six, (480) 967-8696; and University Motel,

  • 966-7221. We encourage you to make reservations as early as possible!

    Sixteenth Annual AACHE Conference
    Friday and Saturday, November 5-6, 1999
    Arizona State University
    Hosted by the Chicano Faculty and Staff Association,
    ASU Chapter of AACHE


    Dear educator, student, and community activist:

    The year 1999 marks the 30th anniversary of the rise and continuous struggle by Chicanos and Chicanas in Arizona State for access to higher education at the college and university level. The AACHE Conference Committee thus has united and organized around such theme and requests participation from all sectors (students, professors, teachers, and community), all state regions, and the two current generations central to this educational struggle. In these times of multiple (re)oppressions (language, education, immigration, gender, sexuality, political representation), a review of past goals and programs, a discussion of their success or failure, an evaluation of their effectiveness, and future planning is both urgent and necessary. We also encourage national leaders to attend and address our 1999 conference theme. The community needs to reorganize and insure future access to higher education for those Chicanas and Chicanos who today are in primary and secondary schools. They need bold, creative, and effective leadership from ACCHE and its supporters.

    We are thus asking for papers/panels/proposals which address the central theme and its four major subdivisions: 1) 1969 and Current Goals; 2) Chicana/o Studies Programs at Colleges and Universities from the 1960s to the Present; 3) Current and Pressing Issues; and 4) Preparing Chicanas/os for Higher Education. In writing and submitting your proposal, keep in mind the multiple (re)oppressions facing our community.
    Proposal format: Name(s), address, home and work phone number(s), e-mail, one 50-word paragraph description, paper/panel/workshop title, and audio-video request.

     Deadline: First priority: September 16, 1999. Notification: October 15, 1999
    Second priority: October 1, 1999.

    Please mail submission to: AACHE Conference >99 Committee, c/o Dr. Manuel de Jesús Hernández-G., Hispanic Research Center, Arizona State University, Box 872702, Tempe, AZ 85287-2702.

    For more information, e-mail: Dr. Manuel de Jesús Hernández-G., Manuel.Hernandez@asu.edu; Sr. Ed Delci, idemb@asu.edu; or Dr. Santos Vega, santos.vega@asu.edu.